The most popular undergraduate course system refor

2022-07-23
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Key points of undergraduate course system reform in the Department of industrial design, Academy of fine arts, Tsinghua University I. macro background and overall thinking of undergraduate teaching reform in our department under the macro background of national higher education system adjustment, the Central Academy of Arts and crafts was incorporated into Tsinghua University in November, 1999 and renamed "Academy of fine arts, Tsinghua University", thus opening the prelude to the teaching reform of the college. In the following year, on the basis of the key research on the teaching system of similar colleges and universities at home and abroad, and according to the social demand for industrial design talents, the overall teaching reform ideas of the Academy of fine arts and the discipline development planning of the Department of industrial design, the adjustment scheme of the teaching system of our department was put forward. After repeated discussions, the plan has been basically determined. It will be implemented from the 2001 level, and will be improved through adjustment and enrichment for several consecutive years in the future

the general idea of this teaching reform includes the following aspects:

1. Straighten out the relationship between disciplines and establish a teaching system structure based on the industrial design discipline. Since the early 1990s, our college has implemented a 10-year two-year basic department teaching system. The idea of breaking discipline boundaries and broadening students' knowledge is of progressive significance. However, due to the failure to seriously study what is the basis of each major of the Academy of Arts and crafts, and how to connect the basic courses with the professional courses, the courses of the basic department have become a kind of basic education to a certain extent, which is out of touch with the teaching system of the major departments in the next two years. Later, although some improvement measures were taken in the basic department, such as setting up courses in groups according to professional characteristics, and the professional department taking charge of the curriculum arrangement of the third semester (the second semester of grade 2), the situation of the separation of the curriculum system could not be fundamentally changed. As far as our department is concerned, only a few basic courses and professional courses of industrial design technology that must be supplemented can be crammed into the next two years, which makes the original teaching system of our department impossible to implement, and the two professional directions of product design and display design have no chance to accept the common basic education of industrial design. After the college was merged into Tsinghua University, the basic department system, which reflected many problems, was canceled, and a certain number of compulsory courses were set, so that our department could rearrange the course system structure according to the teaching rules of industrial design. The specific measures are as follows: strengthen the role of industrial design as the discipline foundation of each professional direction, and all majors receive common basic course training of industrial design. The adjusted class hour ratio is close to that of the specialized public courses (504 class hours) and specialized courses (556 class hours), which ensures the strength of the common courses of industrial design. In terms of specific curriculum, our department classifies the basic courses of industrial design into four course groups, namely "modeling basis of industrial design", "design expression of industry", "industrial design engineering" and "industrial design theory", which constitute a basic training system of several disciplines from basic knowledge, thinking method, modeling ability to operation skills

2. Actively broaden the professional direction according to the needs of social development. New problems in the information society bring new application fields to industrial design. Design education should also broaden the professional fields in time according to the changes of social forms and the development of science and technology. Under the guidance of the overall discipline layout of the college, the content of this memorandum is to establish the professional direction of information design in cooperation with other relevant majors of the Academy of fine arts and relevant discipline units of Tsinghua University, so as to cultivate specialized design talents across industrial design, communication, digital media and other disciplines. At present, preliminary research is being carried out in the form of 985 scientific research projects, and it is planned to start enrollment when it is mature. According to the practical needs of the rapid development of China's automobile industry, our department will jointly build the major of vehicle modeling design with the Automobile Department of Tsinghua University. The major will gradually build its own teaching system with reference to the teaching system of similar mature international colleges and universities and in combination with China's national conditions, and cultivate high-level teachers by inviting in and going out

3. Reduce class hours, change teaching methods and improve teaching efficiency. Before 2000, the four-year undergraduate class hours of our college totaled about 4200 class hours, which was much higher than the usual four-year undergraduate science hours at home and abroad. The high class hours make students busy with classes and homework during the semester, and have no time to take into account things outside the course, which is unfavorable to the development of students' interests and abilities in many aspects. According to the requirements of the college, under the premise of solving some inevitable problems in resin production and molding processing without reducing the number of courses and requirements, this teaching reform has greatly reduced the class hours to about 2500 class hours, and adjusted the previous single unit teaching mode to a comprehensive teaching mode with the coexistence of unit system, cross system, tutor consultation system and providing course platform according to the course characteristics. After the adjustment, there will be no professional courses one day a week. Students can use them to complete homework, go out for research, participate in social practice, visit exhibitions and other extracurricular activities. After changing to the cross teaching system, higher requirements are put forward for the completeness of the teaching plan and the organizational level of the teaching process, which is the focus of the next teaching management work of our department

4. Establish an open and flexible systematic curriculum structure according to the needs of the credit system and the flexible educational system. The credit system and the flexible educational system have long been implemented in international higher education, and some domestic colleges and universities have also tried them out in recent years. Credit system and flexible educational system have obvious advantages in increasing students' right to choose courses independently and allocating learning time independently. They are effective measures for higher education to adapt to the rapidly changing external society. After repeated research, our college has decided to implement the credit system from Grade 2001 and the backward flexible educational system for up to six years. In the future, students can apply for suspension after completing the necessary procedures. Our department has always emphasized the importance of the teaching system and believes that the importance of university education is to help students establish a system of thinking and working methods. Under this guiding ideology, most of the courses in our department pursue the continuity and supporting relationship between each other. However, after the implementation of credit system and flexible school system, how to not only meet the advantages of complete knowledge structure and guaranteed basic quality brought about by systematic teaching, but also give full play to the characteristics of diversified talent specifications brought about by open teaching will become an important subject of teaching design and management in the future. At present, we are ready to take the following measures: 1) each semester after grade 2 forms a curriculum cycle consisting of several basic courses around a design course (temporarily called "curriculum ring"). Each curriculum ring forms a small system supporting each other, focusing on solving the design problems at one level. The curriculum circle spirals upward from the low level to the high level, and the courses between different curriculum circles retain certain repetitive contents. In this way, the total four-year curriculum system is decomposed into several relatively complete small systems. After one semester, students can acquire the main knowledge and ability involved in solving the design problems at this level. 2) The main systematic teaching contents were basically solved in the first three years. In the fourth year, students will be offered a variety of choices from the "design of optional projects". The specific ways may be as follows: 1) enter the project team to participate in the research of scientific research topics; 2) Carry out cooperative courses with institutions at home and abroad; 3) Enter the graduation project in advance; 4) Directly enter the early stage of master's program (after the system of directly promoting to master's degree is mature); 5) Experimental courses. Other open measures to be taken include establishing and improving the part-time professor system and inviting the best teachers at home and abroad to the podium. Establish and improve the course exchange system, and invite the domestic and foreign featured courses to our college. Through the above efforts to establish a fully open, flexible, complete and scientific teaching system. So that the talents we train can meet the comprehensive requirements of "thick foundation, wide caliber and high quality"

II. Introduction to the curriculum system of the Department of industrial design after the reform

1. The leading idea of industrial design education. Due to the development of new technology, the discussion on the definition and scope of industrial design has become a hot topic again. Some experts and scholars at home and abroad put forward the concepts of immaterial design. We believe that these discussions on the significance of industrial design will help our educational concept of industrial design sublimate to a more essential level. Our department always adheres to the educational idea that industrial design is the object and means to solve problems, no matter whether the object we want to deal with is hardware or software, form or interface, individual or system, product or method, material or non-material. The most important thing is to teach students to find problems, analyze problems, organize resources in a way that conditions permit, and solve problems in an appropriate way. So far, we still insist that this idea is the essence of industrial design education. Mastering this essence will not be overwhelmed by the changes of objects. In the design of curriculum structure, we also take this idea as the main basis

2. About the talent specification of industrial design, it is meaningless to clarify the talent specification of industrial design as well as the color of kaleidoscope. The characteristics of the industry determine that the industrial design talents are not two or even eight specifications, but no specifications at all. However, as a goal of design education under limited conditions, I personally tend to pay attention to the training and cultivation of the following two levels of abilities at the same time: 1) skilled basic vocational skills: This ability is related to the competitiveness of students' employment and their ability to be competent for general vocational activities. Specifically, it may include the ability to process and organize basic design elements (function, form, color, material, structure, process, man-machine, etc.), and the ability to express design ideas quickly, expressively and effectively (drawings, models, words, languages, multimedia, etc.). These abilities may not be all indicators to measure the level of designers, but they are indicators to determine whether the employed have the opportunity to further demonstrate their abilities. 2) The ability to solve complex design problems creatively: cultivating such talents is the focus of higher design education, but I think this ability is based on the former, and it is the relationship between the first bite of steamed bread and the last bite of steamed bread. Unlike the former, this level of capability is more abstract and difficult to describe in detail, but it can at least include the following points: the capacity of lithium battery related materials is gradually transferred to China with great creativity and rationality. At the same time, the technology of domestic leading enterprises is continuously improving their understanding and insight, with sharp sense, rich and practical knowledge structure, good at doing things and enterprising spirit. In my opinion, from the perspective of education, the former is a qualified design labor force and carefully pruned flowers and plants, which can be trained by a well-organized teaching system. The latter is a high-level design talent, a towering tree, which can only be naturally formed in a proper environment. The role of the school is to provide countless healthy and robust saplings

3. The knowledge and skills of industrial designers about Course Naming change with the development of society. Therefore, the understanding of the curriculum should be abstracted to the level of the goal so as not to lose direction. For example, hand-painted renderings used to be one of the important basic skills of industrial designers, but today, with the increasing development of digital technology, they are gradually being replaced by computer rendering techniques. Therefore, we have named this course with "graphic design expression" which can better express its essential meaning. The new curriculum system of our department has abandoned the method of naming courses based on expression forms and processing objects as much as possible, and replaced the purpose and

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